Just some short notes on basic IOS vpns using the topology below as an example. All the configuration examples are for the router Lefty. Grab the GNS3 .net file and initial configs [HERE] if you want to try.

The following five steps need to configured in order to create an IPSEC VPN on a Cisco IOS device.

Step 1. ISAKMP policy - Configure what parameters will be used for the IKE phase 1 tunnel
Step 2. Transform Set – Configure what parameters will eb used for the IKE phase 2 tunnel (aka the IPSEC tunnel)
Step 3. ACL – Create an ACL to define what "interesting" traffic will be sent over the VPN
Step 4. Cypto Map – Configured using the previous parameters.
Step 5. Apply – Apply the cypto map to an interface

Step 1. - ISAKMP

Lefty#conf t
Lefty(config)#crypto isakmp enable
Lefty(config)#crypto isakmp policy 10
Lefty(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
Lefty(config-isakmp)#hash sha
Lefty(config-isakmp)#encryption aes 256
Lefty(config-isakmp)#group 5
Lefty(config-isakmp)#lifetime 3600
Lefty(config)#crypto isakmp key 0 SuperS3cure address
Lefty(config)#crypto isakmp keepalive 10 2 periodic

First of we enter config mode then enable isakmp, although by default it is enabled this probably wont be needed. The policy number is quite important. When the router tries to negotiate an acceptable phase one policy it always starts with the policy closest to 1 then work up in order until a negotiation is successful (using 10 leaves some room for growth if needed)

Now we configure the authentication method. Acceptable options are pre-shared key, RSA-Sig and RSA-Encr. For simplicity we'll use PSK at the moment. I'll do another post soon to explain the other options.

Next is the hash method to be used. Options are MD5 and SHA-1 (SHA-1 is the default)

Now we configure the encryption algorithm we want to use. In order of strength AES 256, AES 192, AES 128, 3DES, DES (DES as the default if nothing is explicitly configured)

Group <number> will configure the modulus size of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. (Group 5 isnt supported on all versions of IOS!)

Group Description
1 The 768-bit Diffie-Hellman group.
2 The 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman group.
5 The 1536-bit Diffie-Hellman group.
(Group 1 is the default)

Lifetime is the time in seconds the Security Association (SA). 3600 = 1 hour (86400 (1 day) is the default)

Since we configured pre-shared key we need to configure the key on a per host basis in main config mode.

Just to emphasize  dead peer detection (DPD) we set it to send keepalives every 10s then every 2s if a keepalive fails. Sent on demand rather than periodically like we have configured is the default.

Verify configuration with show crypto isakmp policy

Step 2. - Transform Set

Lefty#conf t
Lefty(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set MYTSETNAME esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
Lefty(cfg-crypto-trans)#mode tunnel

We configure IPSEC tunnel mode using 256 bit AES ecryption and sha-1 hmac.
Various other options are

Lefty(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set MYTSETNAME ?
ah-md5-hmac   AH-HMAC-MD5 transform
ah-sha-hmac   AH-HMAC-SHA transform
comp-lzs      IP Compression using the LZS compression algorithm
esp-3des      ESP transform using 3DES(EDE) cipher (168 bits)
esp-aes       ESP transform using AES cipher
esp-des       ESP transform using DES cipher (56 bits)
esp-md5-hmac  ESP transform using HMAC-MD5 auth
esp-null      ESP transform w/o cipher
esp-seal      ESP transform using SEAL cipher (160 bits)
esp-sha-hmac  ESP transform using HMAC-SHA auth

Verify with show crypto ipsec transform-set

Step 3. - ACL

Lefty#conf t
Lefty(config)#access-list 101 permit ip

Stright forward extended ACL config to define the "interesting" traffic that will be secured via the VPN.

Step 4. - Crypto Map

Lefty#conf t
Lefty(config)#crypto map LEFTY_TO_RIGHTY 10 ipsec-isakmp
% NOTE: This new crypto map will remain disabled until a peer
and a valid access list have been configured.
Lefty(config-crypto-map)#set peer
Lefty(config-crypto-map)#match address 101
Lefty(config-crypto-map)#set transform-set MYTSETNAME

We configure the IP or hostname of the opposite end of the tunnel. Configure the "interesting" traffic with the match command then finally configure the transform set to be used.
Verify with show crypto map

Step 5. - Apply

Lefty#conf t
Lefty(config)#int fastEthernet 1/0
Lefty(config-if)#crypto map LEFTY_TO_RIGHTY
Lefty(config)#ip route

Apply the configured crypto map to the outgoing interface. We need the static route to point to the router at the other end of the VPN tunnel.


The easest way to test is by using and extended ping. So here we use the (fa 1/1) interface on Lefty as the source to ping the address on the Righty router.

Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address:
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface:
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms

Now the ping has setup the VPN because of its "interesting" traffic (the first ping is lost in the VPN creation). We can verify with show crypto engine connections active

Lefty#show crypto engine connections active
Crypto Engine Connections

ID Interface  Type  Algorithm           Encrypt  Decrypt IP-Address
1 Fa0/0      IPsec AES256+SHA                0        4
2 Fa0/0      IPsec AES256+SHA                4        0
1001 Fa0/0      IKE   SHA+AES256                0        0

You can see we have one IKE connection and an IPSEC tunnel for each direction.

m00nie :)